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(2R,4R)-APDCgroup II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist


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Quality Control of (2R,4R)-APDC

Chemical structure


Biological Activity of (2R,4R)-APDC

A highly selective and relatively potent group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist. EC50 values are 0.4, 0.4, > 100, > 100, > 300 and > 300 μM for human mGlu2, mGlu3, mGlu1, mGlu5, mGlu4 and mGlu7 receptors respectively. Centrally active following systemic administration in vivo. Also available as part of the Group II mGlu Receptor.

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Chemical Properties of (2R,4R)-APDC

Cas No. 169209-63-6 SDF Download SDF
Chemical Name (2R,4R)-4-Aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate
Standard InChI InChI=1S/C6H10N2O4/c7-6(5(11)12)1-3(4(9)10)8-2-6/h3,8H,1-2,7H2,(H,9,10)(H,11,12)/t3-,6-/m1/s1
Formula C6H10N2O4 M.Wt 174.16
Solubility Soluble to 100 mM in water
Storage Desiccate at RT
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Packaging according to customer requirements(5mg, 10mg, 20mg and more). Ship via FedEx, DHL, UPS, EMS or other courier with RT , or blue ice upon request.

Preparing Stock Solutions of (2R,4R)-APDC

1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
1 mM 5.7418 mL 28.7092 mL 57.4185 mL 114.8369 mL 143.5462 mL
5 mM 1.1484 mL 5.7418 mL 11.4837 mL 22.9674 mL 28.7092 mL
10 mM 0.5742 mL 2.8709 mL 5.7418 mL 11.4837 mL 14.3546 mL
50 mM 0.1148 mL 0.5742 mL 1.1484 mL 2.2967 mL 2.8709 mL
100 mM 0.0574 mL 0.2871 mL 0.5742 mL 1.1484 mL 1.4355 mL
* Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's necessary to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data above is only for reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.

Background on (2R,4R)-APDC

EC50: 0.4 μM

2R,4R-APDC is a highly selective and relatively potent group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist for human mGlu2. L-Glutamate (Glu) is EAA neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Its effects are mediated by a variety of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal receptors.

In vitro: 2R,4R-APDC blocked forskolin-stimulated cAMP with none of the other activities of lS,3R-ACPD. forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in human mGluR2 expressing cells with about three-fold greater potency than lS,3R-ACPD were also inhibited by 2R,4R-APDC, which, unlike lS,3R-ACPD, exhibited no appreciable activation of phosphoinostide hydrolysis in human mGluR. Thus, 2R,4R-APDC should be a useful pharmacological tool to explore the functions of mGluRs coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase [1]. The effects of four isomers of APDC were investigated at glutamate receptors in vitro. (2R,4R)-APDC, an aza analog of the nonselective mGluR agonist (1S,3R)-ACPD possessed relatively high affinity for metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) with no effects on radioligand binding to NMDA, AMPA, or kainate receptors up to 100 íM. None of the other APDC isomers exhibited significant mGluR binding affinity, indicating that this interaction is highly stereospecific [2].

In vivo: Both (1S,3R)-ACPD and (2R,4R)-APDC were effectively attenuating forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in the adult rat cerebral cortex; however, while (1S,3R)-ACPD was also effectively stimulating basal tritiated inositol monophosphate production of the neonatal rat cerebral cortex, (2R,4R)-APDC was not effectively stimulating phosphoinositide hydrolysis in this tissue preparation. An augmentation of AMPA-induced excitation was produced by microelectrophoretic application of either (1S,3R)-ACPD or (2R,4R)-APDC to intact rat spinal neurons [2].

Clinical trial: Clinical study has been conducted.

[1] Schoepp DD, Johnson BG, Salhoff CR, Valli MJ, Desai MA, Burnett JP, Mayne NG, Monn JA.  Selective inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in rat hippocampus by a novel mGluR agonist, 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4- dicarboxylate. Neuropharmacology. 1995 Aug;34(8):843-50.
[2] Monn JA, Valli MJ, Johnson BG, Salhoff CR, Wright RA, Howe T, Bond A, Lodge D, Spangle LA, Paschal JW, Campbell JB, Griffey K, Tizzano JP, Schoepp DD.  Synthesis of the four isomers of 4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate: identification of a potent, highly selective, and systemically-active agonist for metabotropic glutamate receptors negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. J Med Chem. 1996 Jul 19; 39 (15):2990-3000.

References on (2R,4R)-APDC

Inhibitory effect of group II mGluR agonist 2R, 4R-APDC on cell proliferation in dentate gyrus in rats with epileptic seizure.[Pubmed: 26241549]

Epileptic seizure can increase the cell proliferation in dentate gyrus in brain, but the mechanism remains unclear.

Effects of the group II mGlu receptor agonist 2R,4R-APDC on dentate gyrus cell proliferation in the adult rat brain after diffuse brain injury.[Pubmed: 21535937]

Diffuse brain injury (DBI) has been shown to increase the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus (DG). However, the mechanism by which DBI-induced cell proliferation in the DG may enhance seizure susceptibility remains largely unknown.

2R, 4R-APDC decreases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats: the effect of 2R, 4R-APDC on cell proliferation.[Pubmed: 17712274]

This study investigated the effects of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, 2R, 4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R, 4R-APDC), on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats. 2R, 4R-APDC at a dose of 1 and 10 nmol/day resulted in decreased bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus. In addition, we found that APDC treatment had no effect on the number of BrdU+ and GFAP(+)-labeled cells or BrdU+ and NeuN(+)-labeled cells compared with controls. These data suggest that group II metabotropic glutamate receptor is an important site for glutamate's regulation on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus, but 2R, 4R-APDC had no effects on newborn cell's ability to differentiate into neurons or astrocytes.

2R,4R-APDC influence on hypoxia-induced impairment of learning and memory processes in passive avoidance test.[Pubmed: 15591640]

We investigated the effects of 2R,4R-APDC, a selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (II mGluR) agonist, on certain behaviors in rats subjected and non-subjected to hypoxia. Short-term hypoxia was used as a model of experimentally induced amnesia. 2R,4R-APDC given intracerebroventricularly (icv) at doses of 1 mumol and 100 nmol decreased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field, impaired acquisition and consolidation but improved retrieval in the passive avoidance tests. It also shortened the time spent in open arms and prolonged the time spent in closed arms, reduced the number of open and closed arms entries in an elevated "plus" maze, which is a measure of anxiety. Four-minute hypoxia (2% O(2), 98% N(2)) retrieval of conditioned responses, and exhibited an anxiogenic effect in the elevated "plus" maze in rats, i.e. it reduced the time spent in open arms and the number of entries to closed and open arms. 2R,4R-APDC effect on locomotor and exploratory activity was not changed after hypoxia, i.e. we observed inhibition of motility. This agonist of II mGluRs used at both doses before hypoxia significantly improved acquisition and retrieval, and had dual effect on consolidation, viz. at a dose of 1 mumol, it impaired this process and at a dose of 100 nmol it improved it. In the elevated "plus" maze, rats pretreated with 2R,4R-APDC and then subjected to hypoxia shortened the time spent in open arms and prolonged the time spent in closed arms, reduced the time spent in open arms, i.e. the drug exhibited anxiogenic effect. We conclude, therefore, that 2R,4R-APDC itself impaired acquisition and consolidation, enhanced retrieval but in rats undergoing hypoxia, it improved acquisition, retrieval and when used at the dose of 100 nmol enhanced consolidation. 2R,4R-APDC had beneficial effect in hypoxia-induced memory impairment in passive avoidance test.


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