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(+,-)-Octopamine HCl

(+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Catalog No. BCC4814
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50mg $68.00 In stock
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Quality Control of (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Chemical structure

(+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Biological Activity of (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Invertebrate biogenic amine neurotransmitter, related to noradrenalin, that is an adrenoceptor agonist. Stimulates lipolysis in mammalian adipocytes via activation of β3 receptors. Has dual effect on glucose transport in adipocytes: inhibits transport via β3 receptor activation but stimulates transport when oxidized by MAO. Also activates human α2A receptors, inhibiting subsequent cAMP production.

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Chemical Properties of (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Cas No. 770-05-8 SDF Download SDF
Synonyms (±)-p-Octopamine, Epirenor, Norfen
Chemical Name 4-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)phenol;hydrochloride
Standard InChI InChI=1S/C8H11NO2.ClH/c9-5-8(11)6-1-3-7(10)4-2-6;/h1-4,8,10-11H,5,9H2;1H
Formula C8H11NO2.HCl M.Wt 189.64
Solubility Soluble to 100 mM in water
Storage Desiccate at RT
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20℃ for several months.
Shipping Condition Packaging according to customer requirements(5mg, 10mg, 20mg and more). Ship via FedEx, DHL, UPS, EMS or other courier with RT , or blue ice upon request.

Preparing Stock Solutions of (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
1 mM 5.2731 mL 26.3657 mL 52.7315 mL 105.463 mL 131.8287 mL
5 mM 1.0546 mL 5.2731 mL 10.5463 mL 21.0926 mL 26.3657 mL
10 mM 0.5273 mL 2.6366 mL 5.2731 mL 10.5463 mL 13.1829 mL
50 mM 0.1055 mL 0.5273 mL 1.0546 mL 2.1093 mL 2.6366 mL
100 mM 0.0527 mL 0.2637 mL 0.5273 mL 1.0546 mL 1.3183 mL
* Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's necessary to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data above is only for reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.

Background on (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Octopamine (OA), a biogenic monoamine structurally related to noradrenaline, acts as a neurohormone, a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter in invertebrates.

References on (+,-)-Octopamine HCl

Is Na(+) required for the binding of dopamine, amphetamine, tyramine, and octopamine to the human dopamine transporter?[Pubmed: 11919655]

The role of Na(+) in the recognition of blockers by the dopamine transporter is accomodated by a model with a cation site that overlaps with the blocker binding domain, and a distal Na(+) site that interacts with this cation site and perhaps with the blocker binding domain itself. The present study addresses the application of this model to the recognition of substrates by the dopamine transporter, focusing on conditions that should reveal a stimulatory effect, if present, of Na(+) on substrate binding. Recognition was studied via the inhibition of binding of [(3)H]WIN 35,428 (2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) [(3)H]tropane), a cocaine analog, to the human dopamine transporter in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Little or no changes in binding were noted for dopamine, d-amphetamine, p-tyramine, or dl-octopamine by increasing [Na(+)] from 2 mM to 20 mM with co-varying Br(-), both at pH 7.4 and 7.0. In 74-mM Tris-HBr or -HCl, only dopamine and d-amphetamine showed binding increases upon raising Na(+), leveling off with NO(3)(-) or SO(4)(2-) but not Br(-) as anion at approximately 60 mM Na(+), consonant with a partly stimulatory action of Br(-). An Na(+) free, low 5-mM Tris-HEPES buffer was used for studying Na(+) curves truly starting at 0 mM, and, with SO(4)(2-) as the anion, no stimulation of binding by Na(+) was observed. This suggested that the stimulations observed in high (74 mM) Tris(+) buffer by Na(+) were not a direct effect of Na(+) but rather a disinhibitory effect of Na(+) in removing Tris(+) inhibition that depended upon substrate. Tris(+) IC(50) values in Na(+) free buffer were not lower for dopamine and d-amphetamine than p-tyramine and dl-octopamine. No evidence was found for a stronger inhibitory effect of Na(+) for dopamine and dl-octopamine potentially offsetting Tris(+) disinhibition. All results together support the existence of a substrate domain overlapping with a cation site that also binds Tris(+); a distal Na(+) site interacts with this cation site and with the substrate domain by negative allosterism and is additionally impacted by Cl(-). Importantly, interactions between sites vary with the type of substrate, and, in membrane preparations, Na(+) is not required for, or stimulatory to, the binding of any of the four substrates studied unlike the binding of the cocaine analog WIN 35,428.

Liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fermented foods after derivatization with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride.[Pubmed: 10905732]

The reagent 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride (DNBZ-Cl) was tested for pre-column derivatization of biogenic amines (BAs). Samples were derivatized within 3 min in 1 M NaOH at ambient temperature by adding 2-propanole and 50 mM DNBZ-Cl in acetonitrile. The reaction was terminated by addition of 2 M HCl. For high-performance liquid chromatography an encapsulated stationary reversed-phase and gradient elution using a ternary gradient system were used. The DNBZ derivatives were quantified by their UV-absorption at 260 nm. The structures of the derivatives were elucidated using coupling of HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Detection limits of BAs were approximately 124-864 microg l(-1) (injected amounts 203-1410 pg) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The coefficients of determination were 0.989-0.996, with the exceptions of cadaverine (0.976) and serotonin (0.965). The method was applied to the quantitative determination of agmatine, cadaverine, histamine, octopamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, serotonin, spermidine, spermine, tryptamine and tyramine, in fermented cabbage juices, soy sauces, Misos (soy pastes), fermented fish sauces, and anchovy paste.

A dopamine- and octopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in the nervous system of Octopus vulgaris.[Pubmed: 1782763]

1. Adenylate cyclase activity was assayed in the optic lobe of Octopus vulgaris. 2. Both octopamine and dopamine stimulate the octopus adenylate cyclase, apparently by competing with the same receptor site. 3. (+/-)-2-Amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-HBr (6,7-ADTN) and a number of phenylethanolamine derivatives stimulate the octopus adenylate cyclase activity. 4. The dopamine D-1 antagonists R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine-HCl (SCH-23390) and (+/-)-7-bromo-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H- 3-benzazepine-HCl (SKF-83566) are unable to antagonize the effects of dopamine and octopamine, and similarly ineffective is the agonist (+/-)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3- benzazepine-7,8-diol-HCl (SKF-38393). 5. No detectable binding of labelled SCH-23390 occurs on membrane preparations from octopus optic lobe.

Down regulation of striatal dopamine receptors in experimental hepatic encephalopathy.[Pubmed: 6403789]

Dopamine receptors were studied in striatal synaptosomes prepared from rat brain with hepatic encephalopathy induced by galactosamine-HCl and documented by visual evoked potential recordings. In order to further characterize the model, plasma amino acid levels and striatal catecholamines and octopamine levels were assayed. In agreement with previous reports in animal and in man, plasma amino acids were increased both in mild and severe stage of this pathology. Striatal levels of norepinephrine and dopamine fell during the development of coma while octopamine rose. Dopamine binding studies showed a decrease in the affinity during the mild stage and a reduction of receptor numbers in the severe stage of encephalopathy. The overall results, in the light of previous reports on GABA receptor studies, seem to indicate the presence in the development of encephalopathy of an imbalance between the dopaminergic and the GABAergic system leading to a prevalence of GABAergic inhibitory system.

[Release of norfenefrine from sustained-release formulations by an in vitro dissolution model. Simulation of "drug levels" by calculation using pharmacokinetical constants and comparison with in vivo course of action (author's transl)].[Pubmed: 7194653]

Drug release and dissolution behaviour of 1-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-amino-ethan-1-ol hydrochloride (norfenefrine-HCl) from a sustained-release norfenefrine preparation (Esbuphon) were tested by an in vitro dissolution model in comparison with other norfenefrine formulations. By using pharmacokinetical constants, relative "drug levels" were calculated and compared with the activity curves from animal experiments. Conformities in time course were shown. Variations are discussed. The application of the model is justified if determination of serum concentration of norfenefrine cannot be done.


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